A contract is often proven in writing or by a document, the general rule is that a person who signs a contractual document is bound by the conditions of this document, this rule is called rule in L`Estrange v Graucob.  This rule was approved by the High Court of Australia in Toll (FGCT) Pty Ltd v Alphapharm Pty Ltd.  However, a valid contract may be concluded (with a few exceptions) orally or even by conduct.  Remedies for infringements include damages (reimbursement of financial losses)  and, only in the case of serious infringement, refusal (i.e. annulment).  The appropriate remedy for a given benefit, which is enforceable by in injunction, may be available if damages are not sufficient. The choice of a right or jurisdiction is not mandatory for a court. On the basis of an analysis of the laws, procedural rules and public policy of the State and jurisdiction in which the case was filed, a court identified by the clause may establish that it should not exercise jurisdiction, or a court of another jurisdiction or tribunal may find that the dispute may continue despite the clause.  As part of this analysis, a court may determine whether the clause complies with the formal requirements of the jurisdiction in which the case was filed (in some jurisdictions, the choice of a court or an award clause limits the parties only if the word “exclusively” appears explicitly in the clause). Some courts do not accept remedies that have no connection with the elected court and others do not impose a jurisdiction clause when they consider themselves a more convenient forum for the dispute.  An English common law concept, consideration is necessary for simple contracts, but not for special contracts (contracts per act). The court in Currie v Misa  stated that consideration was a “right, interest, profit, advantage or indulgence, inconvenience, loss, liability”. Thus, consideration is a promise of something of value given by a promiser in exchange for something of value that is made by a promise; and typically, the question of value is the commodity, money or an action. The indulgence to act, such as an adult who promises not to smoke, is enforceable only if one thus renounces a legal right.   Damages may be general in nature or consequential damages. General damage is natural damage resulting from an infringement. The resulting damages are damages which, although not naturally resulting from a breach, are of course accepted by both parties at the time of the conclusion of the contract. An example would be someone renting a car to go to a business meeting, but if that person arrives to pick up the car, they are not there. The general damage would be the cost of renting another car. Consequential damages would be lost business if that person was unable to attend the meeting, if both parties knew the reason why the party was renting the car. However, it is still mandatory to reduce losses. .