With the recent proliferation of bilateral PTAs and the emergence of mega-TAPs (broad regional trade agreements such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) or the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a global trading system managed exclusively within the framework of the WTO seems unrealistic and interactions between trading systems must be taken into account. The increasing complexity of the international trading system resulting from the proliferation of PTAs should be taken into account when considering the choice of forums used by countries or regions to promote their trade relations and environmental agenda.  TPAs have grown rapidly; In the 1990s, there were just over 100 PTAs. Until 2014, there were more than 700.  Preferential trade agreements (PTAs) negotiated by the EU confer privileged access to the markets of the countries concerned. As such, they constitute an exception to the first principle of the World Trade Organisation, which is to grant equal treatment to all trading partners (principle of the greatest obstacle). The Community has preferential arrangements which are both unilateral (preferential arrangements granted by the Community without reciprocity) and conventional (reciprocal agreements establishing free trade areas). These regimes are based on the origin of products benefiting from tariff preferences. A preferential trade area (including preferential trade agreements, PTAs) is a trading bloc that gives preferential access to certain products from participating countries. This requires the reduction of customs duties, but not their total elimination. A PTA can be established by a trade pact.
This is the first step in economic integration. The boundary between a PTA and a free trade area (PTA) can blur, with almost all PTAs having the main objective of becoming a free trade agreement under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Several hundred bilateral SAAs have been signed since the beginning of the twentieth century. The Trend project of the Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy lists approximately 700 trade agreements, the vast majority of which are bilateral.  The remaining ASAs can be attributed to political preachers. Countries under democratic domination are more inclined to participate in ASPT than countries under autocratic domination. Autocratic leaders are not elected and therefore have not threatened their power by disgruntled citizens. Democratic leaders have an incentive to satisfy their voters, and SAAs can help drive down the price of consumer goods. If they stand up for SAAs, democratic leaders can also signal to voters that they are committed to a policy that improves their well-being. Countries are also more likely to join ptAs when competing countries have already done so.  Try the new machine translation by clicking on the blue “Translate” icon in the right corner of the article! In 2004, Scott Baier and Jeffrey Bergstrand published that there were three key economic determinants for asp training. Countries are more likely to participate in ASPT when they have low transport costs and higher savings.
Third, countries of similar economic size are expected to benefit most from SAA training. Economic determinants such as GDP, similarity in economic size and distance between countries correctly predict more than 80% of the SAAs in force from 2020 on.  These tariff preferences have given rise to numerous derogations from the principle of normal trade relations, namely that members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) should apply the same duty to imports from other WTO members.  [] [] []. .